HBOT in China and Russia

Reproduced with permission from the Textbook of Hyperbaric Medicine, 5th edition, by K. K. Jain, ISBN 978-0-88937-361-7, pp. 500-502
©2009 Hogrefe & Huber Publishers —

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Hyperbaric Medicine in China

The first Chinese hyperbaric chamber was built in 1964 by Dr. Wen-ren Li. Hyperbaric medicine has developed rapidly in China during the past decade and there are now over 18,000 hyperbaric chambers in the country. The total staff including physicians, nurses, technicians and research scientists is over 35,000. The number of patients treated yearly with HBO exceeds 2.5 million. Apart from the routine practice, research is being carried out on the mechanisms of action of HBO and its role in the management of the following conditions:

•  Stroke
•  Persistent vegetative state
•  Autoimmune diseases
•  Cancer
•  Rejection in transplants

Indications for HBO in China, Chinese Society of Hyperbaric Oxygen Medicine

Emergency indications, first line
l. Acute CO poisoning and its delayed neurological sequelae
2. Acute decompression sickness
3. Acute air embolism
4. Acute cerebral dysfunction after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (electric injury, drowning, hanging)
5. Anaerobic infections (Gas gangrene, tetanus, etc)
6. Shock
7. Chemical and gas poisoning (hydrogen sulfide, petroleum gas etc)
8. Acute retinal artery occlusion
9. Acute cerebral edema and pulmonary edema
10. Crush injury and its syndrome
11. Acute peripheral circulatory failure
12. Severe spinal cord injury.

Second line indications, adjunctive
l. Coronary heart disease
2. Myocardial infarction
3. Myocarditis
4. Bronchial asthma and asthmatic bronchitis
5. Ischemic cerebrovascular disease
6. Migraine
7. Bell’s palsy
8. Peripheral nerve injuries and neuropathies
9. Mountain sickness
10. Brain trauma
11. Brain tumor, post-operative
12. Cerebrovascular disease, post-operative
13. Multiple sclerosis
14. Epilepsy
15. Reimplantation of severed limb, post-operative
16. Myelitis
17. Bone fractures and non-union of fracture
18. Aseptic osteonecrosis

19. Chronic skin ulcer
20. Congenital heart disease surgery
21. Coronary artery bypass operation
22. Paralytic ileus
23. Peripheral vascular disease
24. Chilblain
25. Burns
26. Cosmetic surgery, post-operative
27. Post skin grafting
28. Sudden deafness
29. Acoustic deafness
30. Vertigo
31. Retinal venous thrombosis
32. Central serous retinopathy
33. Retinal concussion
34. Optic atrophy
35. Diabetic retinopathy
36. Viral encephalitis
37. Infectious hepatitis
38. Chronic hepatic insufficiency
39. Peptic ulcer
40. Ulcerative colitis
41. Sports injuries
42. Radiation injury
43. Pharmaceutical and chemical intoxications
44. Pityriasis rosea
45. Shingles
46. Erythema nodosum
47. Periodontal disease
48. Recurrent aphthous ulcer
49. Cancer (combined with radiotherapy and chemotherapy)
50. Pneumonia in children
51. Neonatal asphyxia
52. Fetal distress
53. Cerebral palsy in children

Investigative indications
l. Meningitis
2. Arrhythmia
3. Chronic heart failure
4. Glaucoma
5. Manganese poisoning
6. Autoimmune diseases
7. Diabetes mellitus
8. Radiation-induced vasculitis
9. Cervical spondylopathy
10. Mycosis
11. Parkinson’s disease
12. Senile dementia
13. Pyocephalus
14. Progressive myodystrophy
15. Rheumatoid arthritis
16. Adult respiratory distress syndrome
17. Childbirth in women with heart disease
18. Habitual abortion

Absolute contraindications
l. Untreated pneumothorax and mediastinal emphysema
2. Active bleeding and hemorrhagic disease
3. Positive reaction to oxygen tolerance test
4. Tuberculous cavitation in lungs and hemoptysis
5. Second degree heart block

Relative contraindications
1. Severe upper respiratory tract infection
2. Severe pulmonary emphysema and bullae of lungs
3. Severe sinusitis
4. Untreated malignant tumor
5. Detachment of retina
6. Sick sinus syndrome
7. Bradycardia
8. Otitis media suppurativa
9. Eustachian tube occlusion
10. Hypertension


Hyperbaric Oxygen Indications in Russia


Vascular diseases
Arterial obstructions in the limbs before and after surgery (embolism, traumas, thrombosis)
• Gas embolism in the blood vessels
• Ulcers caused by defective blood circulation
• Cardiac disorders
Heart strain
Heart rhythm disturbances
Irregular heartbeat
Paroxysmal extrasystole
Cardiac insufficiency
Cardiosclerosis decompensation
Cardiac insufficiency after heart surgery
Heart contraction disturbances
Cardio-pulmonary insufficiency
• Pulmonary disorders
Lung abscess before and after surgery
Nonspecific chronic lung affections with cardiopulmonary insufficiency signs
• Gastrointestinal disorders
Stomach and duodenal ulcers
Intestinal obstruction
• Liver diseases
Acute viral hepatitis
Hepatic encephalitis
Liver cirrhosis
Obstructive jaundice
Hepatic insufficiency after resuscitation
Toxic hepatitis

• Central nervous system diseases
Cerebral gas embolism
Brain ischemia
Cranial traumas
Posthypoxic encephalopathy
Cervical spinal cord trauma
• Eye disorders
Acute retinal ischemia
Retinal dystrophy
Diabetic retinopathy
Optic neuritis by methanol intoxication
• Endocrine disorders
Diabetic arteriopathy
Diabetic ulcers and polyneuritis
Toxic goitre
• Facial and maxillary pathology
Facial phlegm
Maxillary osteomyelitis
Necrotic gingivitis and stomatitis
Facial actinomycosis
• Orthopedics
Fractured limbs with blood circulation disturbances
Fractures in an arteriopathic or diabetic patient
Delayed fracture union
• Obstetrics
Abortion by placental ischemia
Threatened abortion due to endocrine disorders

Placental hypoxia
Fetal hypoxia
Pregnancy neuropathy (stage 1, 2)
Pregnancy with immunological disorders
Pregnancy complications by extragenital pathology
Cardiac malformation: acquired or congenital
Pregnant or delivered mothers in critical state
Coma after eclampsia
• Diseases of newly born
Asphyxia during delivery
Cerebrovascular disturbance
• General surgery infections
General septic abscess unresolved in spite of incision
Infectious peritonitis with surgical removal of initial lesion
• Wound pathology
Clostridial infection
Wound abscess in spite of drainage
Prophylactic treatment of wound infected after open trauma
Granular wound
Wound with superficial burn
Postsurgery wound
• Exogenous poisoning
Carbon monoxide poisoning
Cyanide poisoning
Chloroxide poisoning
Organic phosphate poisoning

Thank you to the publishers of Textbook of Hyperbaric Medicine, 5th revised and updated edition, K. K. Jain for allowing us to reproduce such comprehensive and important lists.
We sincerely hope that this reference will assist in the advancement of Hyperbaric Medicine’s use of treatment for many indications.